Off Solenoid Valves

Abstract—This paper presents a novel bilateral control scheme for pneumatic teleoperation systems that are actuated by low-cost solenoid valves. A sliding-mode nonlinear control is incorporated into a two-channel, bilateral teleoperation architecture involving position–position, force–force, or force–position schemes. An analysis of stability and transparency of the closed-loop teleoperation system is carried out. The simulation results demonstrate high accuracies in terms of position and force tracking in the teleoperation system.