Wave-Based Time Delay Compensation In Bilateral Teleoperation Two-Channel Versus Four-Channel Architectures

Abstract—In this paper, two different approaches have been proposed aiming to improve transparency of a passivity-based delay-compensated teleoperation system: direct force reflection in a two-channel wave-based control architecture, which uses the same number of channels as the traditional position error-based control scheme with wave variables and, four-channel wave-based control architecture, which is capable of achieving ideal transparency in the presence of time delay. In order to present a comprehensive performance comparison, we quantify the transparency of each approach through subjecting the experimental results of a bilateral master-slave system developed for endoscopic surgery applications to identification of the hybrid parameters of the equivalent two-port network.