Switched-Impedance Control Of Surgical Robots In Teleoperated Beating-Heart Surgery
A novel switched-impedance control method is proposed and implemented for telerobotic beating-heart surgery. Differing from cardiopulmonary-bypass-based arrested-heart surgery, beating-heart surgery creates challenges for the human operator (surgeon) due to the heart's fast motions and, in the case of a teleoperated surgical robot, the oscillatory haptic feedback to the operator. This paper designs two switched reference impedance models for the master and slave robots to achieve both motion compensation and non-oscillatory force feedback during slave-heart interaction. By changing the parameters of the impedance models, different performances for both robots are obtained: (a) when the slave robot does not make contact with the beating heart, the slave robot closely follows the motion of the master robot as in a regular teleoperation system, (b) when contact occurs, the slave robot automatically compensates for the fast motions of the beating heart while the human operator perceives the non-oscillatory component of the slave-heart interaction forces, creating the feeling of making contact with an idle heart for the human operator. The proposed method is validated through simulations and experiments.