Haptic Interaction In Robot-Assisted Endoscopic Surgery A Sensorized End Effector

Abstract—Conventional endoscopic surgery has some drawbacks that can be addressed by using robots. The robotic systems used for surgery are still in their infancy. A major deficiency is the lack of haptic feedback to the surgeon. In this paper, the benefits of haptic feedback in robot-assisted surgery are discussed. A novel robotic end-effector is then described that meets the requirements of endoscopic surgery and is sensorized for force/torque feedback. The endoscopic end-effector is capable of non-invasively measuring its interaction with tissue in all the degrees of freedom available during endoscopic manipulation. It is also capable of remotely actuating a tip and measuring its interaction with the environment without using any sensors on the jaws. The sensorized end-effector can be used as the last arm of a surgical robot to incorporate haptic feedback and/or to evaluate skills and learning curves of residents and surgeons in endoscopic surgery.