Bilateral Delayed Teleoperation The Effects Of Passified Channel Model And Force Sensing

Abstract—In this paper, based on a passivity framework, admittance-type and hybrid-type delay-compensated communication channel models are introduced, which warrant different bilateral control architectures for wave-based teleoperation under time delay. We utilize wave transforms and signal filtering for passivating the delayed-communication channel and passivity/stability conditions are derived using scattering theory based on an end-to-end model of the teleoperation system rather than the communication channel alone. Contrary to a commonly held view, it is proven that the teleoperation system can remain stable when force measurement data of the master and the slave manipulators interactions with the operator and the remote environment are used. Experimental results on a soft-tissue task for a hybrid-type architecture and for round-trip delays of 60 msec and 600 msec show that using slave-side force measurements considerably enhances teleoperation transparency.