A Passivity Criterion For Sampled-data Bilateral Teleoperation Systems-TOH
A teleoperation system consists of a teleoperator, a human operator, and a remote environment. Conditions involving system and controller parameters that ensure the teleoperator passivity can serve as control design guidelines to attain maximum teleoperation transparency while maintaining system stability. In this paper, sufficient conditions for teleoperator passivity are derived for when position error based controllers are implemented in discrete-time. This new analysis is necessary because discretization causes energy leaks and does not necessarily preserve the passivity of the system. The proposed criterion for sampled-data teleoperator passivity imposes lower bounds on the teleoperator's robots dampings, an upper bound on the sampling time, and bounds on the control gains. The criterion is verified through simulations and experiments.