Improving Transparency In Delay-free And Delayed Teleoperation A Generalized4-Channel Control Architecture

Abstract—For haptic teleoperation, often one or more force sensors are also used, which warrant new bilateral control architectures while increasing the cost and complexity of the teleoperation system. In this paper, considering a four channel architecture, we investigate the added benefits of using force sensors that measure hand/master and slave/environment interactions and utilizing local feedback loops on teleoperation transparency. Furthermore, we propose a novel method for incorporating wave transformation delay compensation technique in the four channel architecture, which is the best architecture for providing transparency. It is demonstrated that the proposed teleoperation architecture is capable of providing absolute stability as well as ideal transparency under time delay. The corresponding conditions for each of these two operation modes have been derived. Experimental results in support of the developed theory are provided.